Air pollution causing primary and secondary aerosols in the atmosphere can have a substantial negative impact on human health, ranging from respiratory symptoms to hospital admissions and death. Inhalation of different particulate sizes can cause various health problems. The effects of chronic PM exposure on mortality (life expectancy) are most likely attributable to PM2.5 rather than to coarser particles.
The impact model is addressing emissions of PM2.5, as well as precursor emissions sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), ammonia (NH3) and consequent effects on the Area of protection ‘Human Health’.
A marginal approach for calculating the characterization factors is followed, meaning that the additional impact of a marginal increase in ozone precursor emission using today’s situation as the reference state was determined. Model results were determined following a change in anthropogenic emissions and is determined by lowering the year 2000 emissions by 20% for each of the 56 source regions. Impact is measured in disability adjusted life years for human health (DALYs) for human health.