Project outcomes


Below is the list of final deliverables resulting from the LC-IMPACT project.


WP1 - Resource use impacts

D1.6 Land use impacts

D1.7 Water use impacts

D1.8 Marine resource use impacts

D1.9 Abiotic resource use impacts (coming soon)

WP2 - Ecotoxicity and human toxicity

D2.3 Ecotoxicity and human toxicity

D2.4 Normalization for eco and human toxicity

WP3 - Non toxic pollutant impacts

D3.7 Aquatic eutrophication 

D3.8 Terrestrial acidification

D3.9 Particulate matter formation impacts (available soon; contact: Rosalie van Zelm,

D3.10 Photochemical ozone formation impacts (available soon; contact: Rosalie van Zelm,

D3.11 Noise impacts

WP4 - Case studies

D4.7 Fish case study

D4.8 Tomato case study

D4.9 Margarine case study

D4.10 Paper production and printing case study

D4.11 Car manufacturing and operation case study

WP5 - Dissemination

D5.4 Guidance document

D5.6 Final policy brief newsletter

Course Materials

The developed course materials can be used in training and communication. All courses will give a detailed description of the developed methodology, provide insight in bringing the methodology in to practice and indicate where possibilities for further research lie.


These courses are especially developed for researchers that want to gain more insight in the developed methodologies. That way, researchers can learn more about the developed methodology for:


Resource use impacts

Fossil and mineral resource scarcity

Fresh water impacts

Marine resources


Non-toxic pollutant impacts

European characterization factors for damage to natural vegetation by ozone

Freshwater eutrophication

Terrestrial acidification

Aquatic Eutrophication

Fine particulate matter



Exotoxicity and human toxicity

Ecotoxic Effects on warm blooded Predators

Terrestrial ecotoxicity assessment of metals

Dynamic multi-crop model to characterize impacts of pesticides in food


General guidance Impact assessment

Also, three of the course materials are developed on the principles of impact assessment. These course materials intend to outline the field impact assessment.

Practical guide to impact assessment

General structure of life cycle impact assessment

Introduction to uncertainty analysis




Below the publications of the LC-IMPACT project can be found


Cross-cutting topics

Curran M, De Baan L, De Schryver AM, Van Zelm R, Hellweg S, Koellner T, Sonneman G, Huijbregts MAJ. 2011. Toward meaningful endpoints of biodiversity in Life Cycle Assessment. Environ Sci Techn, 45 (1): 70-79.


Mutel C, Pfister S, Hellweg S. 2012. GIS-based regionalized life cycle assessment: how big is small enough? methodology and case study of electricity generation. Environ Sci Techn, 46 (2): 1096–1103.


Van Zelm R, Huijbregts MAJ. 2013. Quantifying the trade-off between parameter and model structure uncertainty in life cycle impact assessment. Environ Sci Techn. 47(16): 9274–9280.

Open access version

Resource use impacts (WP1)

Amores MJ, Verones F, Raptis C, Juraske R, Pfister S, Stoessel F, Antón A, Castells F, Hellweg S. 2013. Biodiversity impacts from salinity increase in a coastal wetland. Environ Sci Techn 47 (12): 6384–6392.

Open access version


De Baan L, Alkemade R, Koellner T. 2013. Land use impacts on biodiversity in LCA: a global approach. Int J Life Cycle Assess 18 (6): 1216-1230.


De Baan L, Mutel CL, Curran M, Hellweg S, Koellner T. 2013. Land use in life cycle assessment: global characterization factors based on regional and global potential species extinction (open access). Environ Sci Techn 47 (16): 9281–9290.


Emanuelsson A, Ziegler F, Pihl L, Sköld M, Sonesson U. 2014. Accounting for overfishing in life cycle assessment: new impact categories for biotic resource use. Int J Life Cycle Assess 19 (5): 1156-1168.


Hanafiah MM, Xenopoulos MA, Pfister S, Leuven RSEW, Huijbregts MAJ. 2011. Characterization factors for water consumption and greenhouse gas emissions based on freshwater fish species extinction. Environ Sci Techn 45 (12): 5272-5278.

Open access version


Hornborg S, Belgrano A, Bartolino V, Valentinsson D, Ziegler F. 2013. Trophic indicators in fisheries: a call for re-evaluation. Biology Letters 9.


Koellner T, De Baan L, Beck T, Brandão M, Civit B, Goedkoop M, Margni M, Milà i Canals L, Müller-Wenk R, Weidema B, Wittstoch B. 2013. Principles for life cycle inventories of land use on a global scale. Int J Life Cycle Assess 18 (6): 1203-1215.


Maia de Souza D, Flynn DB, DeClerck F, Rosenbaum R, Melo Lisboa H, Koellner T. 2013. Land use impacts on biodiversity in LCA: proposal of characterization factors based on functional diversity. Int J Life Cycle Assess 18 (6): 1231-1242.


Núñez M, Antón A, Muñoz P, Rieradevall J. 2013. Inclusion of soil erosion impacts in life cycle assessment on a global scale: application to energy crops in Spain. Int J Life Cycle Assess 18 (4): 755-767.

Open access version


Núñez M, Pfister S, Antón A, Muñoz P, Hellweg S, Koehler A, Rieradevall J. 2012. Assessing the environmental impacts of water consumption by energy crops grown in Spain. J Ind Ecol 17 (1): 90-102.

Open access version


Núñez M, Pfister S, Roux P, Antón A. 2013. Estimating water consumption of potential natural vegetation on global dry lands: building an LCA framework for green water flows. Environ Sci Technol 47 (21): 12258-12265.

Open access version


Ponsioen TC, Vieira MDM, Goedkoop MJ. 2014. Surplus cost as a life cycle impact indicator for fossil resource scarcity. Int J Life Cycle Assess 19 (4): 872-881.


Van Zelm R, Muchada PAN, Van der Velde M, Kindermann G, Obersteiner M, Huijbregts MAJ. 2015. Impacts of biogenic CO2 emissions on human health and terrestrial ecosystems: the case of increased wood extraction for bioenergy production on a global scale. Global Change Biology – Bioenergy 7 (4): 608-617.


Verones F, Bartl K, Pfister S, Jiménez Vílchez R, Hellweg S. 2012. Modeling the local biodiversity impacts of agricultural water use: case study of a wetland in the coastal arid area of Peru (open access). Environ Sci Techn 46 (9): 4966-4974.


Verones F, Pfister S, Hellweg S. 2013. Quantifying area changes of internationally important wetlands due to water consumption in LCA (open access). Environ Sci Techn 47 (17): 9799–9807.


Verones, F, Saner D, Pfister S, Baisero D, Rondinini C, Hellweg, S. 2013. Effects of consumptive water use on wetlands of international importance. Environ Sci Technol 47 (21): 12248-12257.


Vieira MDM, Goedkoop MJ, Storm P, Huijbregts MAJ. 2012. Ore grade decrease as life cycle impact indicator for metal scarcity: the case of copper. Environ Sci Techn 46 (23): 12772-12778.


Vieira M, Storm P, Goedkoop M. 2011. Stakeholder Consultation: What do Decision Makers in Public Policy and Industry Want to Know Regarding Abiotic Resource Use? Springer 27-34 pp.


Van Zelm R, Schipper AM, Rombouts M, Snepvangers J, Huijbregts MAJ. 2011. Implementing groundwater extraction in life cycle impact assessment: characterization factors based on plant species richness. Environ Sci Techn 45 (2): 629-635.

Open access version

Ecotoxicity and human toxicity impacts (WP2)

Ciuffo B, Sala S. 2013. Climate- based archetypes for the environmental fate assessment of chemicals. Journal of Environmental Management 129: 435-443.

Open access version


Fantke P, Juraske R, Antón A, Friedrich R, Jolliet O. 2011. Dynamic Multicrop Model to Characterize Impacts of Pesticides in Food. Environ Sci Techn 45 (20): 8842-8849.



Fantke P, Wieland P, Juraske R, Shaddick G, Sevigné E, Friedrich R, Jolliet O., 2012. Parameterization models for pesticide exposure via crop consumption. Environ Sci Techn 46 (23): 12864-12872.



Golsteijn L, Hendriks HWM, Van Zelm R, Ragas AMJ, Huijbregts MAJ. 2012. Do interspecies correlation estimations increase the reliability of the chemical effect assessment for wildlife? Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 80: 238-243.

Open acces version. Supporting infomation


Golsteijn L, van Zelm R, Hendriks AJ, Huijbregts MAJ. 2013. Statistical uncertainty in hazardous terrestrial concentrations estimated with aquatic ecotoxicity data. Chemosphere 93 (2): 366-372.



Golsteijn L, Van Zelm R, Veltman K, Musters G, Hendriks AJ, Huijbregts MAJ. 2012. Including ecotoxic effects on warm-blooded predators in life cycle impact assessment. Integr Environ Assess Manage 8 (2): 372-378.

Open access publication. Supporting information


Owsianiak M, Rosenbaum RK, Huijbregt, MAJ, Hauschild MZ. 2013. Addressing Geographic Variability in the Comparative Toxicity Potential of Copper and Nickel in Soils. Environ Sci Techn 47 (7): 3241−3250.

Open access version. Supporting information


Sala S, Marinov D, Pennington D. 2011. Spatial differentiation of chemical removal rates from air in life cycle impact assessment. Int J Life Cycle Assess 16 (8): 748-760.

Open access version. Supporting information.


Sala S, Marinov D, Kounina A, Margni M, Humbert S, Jolliet O, Shaked Sand Pennigton D, Life Cycle Impact Assessment of chemicals: relevance and feasibility of spatial differentiation for ecotoxicity and human toxicity impact assessment. Open access version


Sevigné Itoiz E, Fantke P, Juraske R, Kounina A, Antón Vallejo  A. 2012. Deposition and residues of azoxystrobin and imidacloprid on greenhouse lettuce with implications for human consumption. Chemosphere 89 (9): 1034-1041.

Open access version

Non-toxic pollutant impacts (WP3)

Azevedo LB, Henderson AD, Van Zelm R, Jolliet O, Huijbregts MAJ. 2013. Assessing the importance of spatial variability versus model choices in life cycle impact assessment: the case of freshwater eutrophication in Europe. Environ Sci Technol 47(23): 13565–13570.


Azevedo LA, Van Zelm R, Elshout PMF, Hendriks AJ, Leuven RSEW, Struijs J, de Zwart D, Huijbregts MAJ. 2013. Species richness – phosphorus relationships for lakes and streams worldwide. Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr 22 (12): 1304-1314.

Open access version


Azevedo LB, Van Zelm R, Hendriks AJ, Bobbink R, Huijbregts MAJ. 2013 Global assessment of the effects of terrestrial acidification on plant species richness Environ Pollut 174: 10-15.

Open access version


Cucurachi S, Heijungs R. 2014. Characterisation factors for life cycle impact assessment of sound emissions. Science of The Total Environment 468-469, 280-291.


Cucurachi S, Heijungs R, Ohlau K. 2012. Towards a general framework for including noise impacts in LCA (open access). Int J Life Cycle Assess 17 (4): 471-487.


Helmes RJK, Huijbregts MAJ, Henderson AD, Jolliet O. 2012. Spatially explicit fate factors of phosphorous emissions to freshwater at the global scale (open access). Int J Life Cycle Assess 17 (5): 646-654.


Struijs J, De Zwart D, Posthuma L, Leuven RSEW, Huijbregts MAJ. 2011. Field sensitivity distribution of macroinvertebrates for phosphorus in inland waters. Integr Environ Assess Manag 7 (2): 280-286

Open access version


Van Goethem TMWJ, Azevedo LB, van Zelm R, Hayes F, Ashmore MR, Huijbregts MAJ. 2013. Plant Species Sensitivity Distributions for ozone exposure. Environ Poll 178, 1-6.

Open access version


Van Goethem TMWJ, Preiss P, Azevedo LB, Roos J, Friedrich R, Huijbregts MAJ, van Zelm R. 2013. European characterization factors for damage to natural vegetation by ozone in life cycle impact assessment. Atmos Environ 77: 318-324.

Open access version

Case studies (WP4)

Antón A, Torrellas M, Raya V, Montero JI. 2014. Modelling the amount of materials to improve inventory datasets of greenhouse infrastructures. Int J Life Cycle Assess 19 (1): 29-41.

Open access version


Antón A, Torrellas M, Nuñez M, Sevigne E, Amores MJ, Muñoz P, Montero JI. 2014. Improvement of Agricultural Life Cycle Assessment studies through Spatial Differentiation and New Impact Categories: Case Study on Greenhouse Tomato Production. Environ Sci Technol 48 (16): 9454-9462.